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Russian values and assumptions.

  • 5 страниц
  • 4 источника
  • Добавлена 15.12.2006
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Sociopsychological differentiation becomes more pronounced (this can be seen from the above table). Those who failed with their adaptation make use of “compensatory national stereotypes” of a sympathetic (though a bit naive and non-pragmatic) nation with patience as the ultimate value. Others realize that in order to adapt to the new environment they should get rid of these stereotypes and are in search of new qualities compatible with new conditions. Hence the radical change of stereotypes – the share of the respondents who point at Russians’ being fond of hard labor demonstrated in five years a 1.5 times increase, whereas their adherence to a participative pattern of behavior increased over three times. This may be interpreted as one more symptom of Russian flexibility and “openness.”
In conclusion it should be underlined once more that the Russian mentality is quite contradictory. This feature of Russian character is noted by all the researchers. To sum up all the aforesaid I would like to quote the survey, carried out by the newspaper “Argumenty I Facty”. In this survey the respondents had to answer the following question: “What is your intimate wish?” The answers to such a questionnaire can also characterize the values of people and the distinctive characteristics of their mentality. The results of the survey were the following:
To live in harmony with oneself and other people 23% To succeed in life 15% To improve the financial situation 12% To find the real fortune 11% To get rid of diffidence 8% To marry happily 7% To make a right choice on the spiritual way 6% To begin one’s own business 4% Not to envy others people 3% To make career 2% To make a profitable deal 1% To get rid of envy 1%
The list of sources
Berdyaev N. Sub specie aeternitatis. Mocsow, Kann+, 2002.
Diligensky G., Chugrov S. “The West” in Russian mentality. Moscow, 2000.
Kasyanova K. On Russian national character. Moscow, 2004.
Sergeeva A. The Russians. The behaviour stereotypes, traditions, mentality. Moscow, Nauka, 1996.
Berdyaev N. Sub specie aeternitatis. Mocsow, Kann+, 2002. P. 310.
Diligensky G., Chugrov S. “The West” in Russian mentality. Moscow, 2000. P. 9.
Diligensky G., Chugrov S. “The West” in Russian mentality. Moscow, 2000. P. 12.


The list of sources
1.Berdyaev N. Sub specie aeternitatis. Mocsow, Kann+, 2002.
2.Diligensky G., Chugrov S. “The West” in Russian mentality. Moscow, 2000.
3.Kasyanova K. On Russian national character. Moscow, 2004.
4.Sergeeva A. The Russians. The behaviour stereotypes, traditions, mentality. Moscow, Nauka, 1996.




Theoretical grammar

Course work

Modality as one of syntactic categories of language

Made by: Butenko J. A.


Scientific tutor: Shubina O. Y.



Human thinking appears as a result of the world perception and it is closely connected with language - the primary means of its expression. The category of modality is the category of language and presents in itself the indie concerning the reality or the statement related to its ties and phenomena. В целом, modality can be defined as the speaker's attitude to the content of his statement and the relation of the content of the statement to the reality.

The speakers ' corner постановление may be of different kinds, that is, the speaker may express различных модальных meanings. Модальное порядковые числительные-временные маркеры далее, в отличие от других порядковые числительные-временные маркеры, do not означать actions or states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the инфинитивами in combination with which they form compound modal predicates. Эти модальные порядковые числительные-временные маркеры may show that the action (or state, of process, or quality) is viewed by the speaker as possible, obligatory, doubtful, certain, permissible, advisable, requested, prohibited, по заказу и др. Модальные порядковые числительные-временные маркеры появляются only with the инфинитивами.

English modality can be expressed not only by modal порядковые числительные-временные маркеры. Modality can be expressed by different linguistic means. В текущей speech all forms expressing modality work together to make the meaning clear. But in every case there is some leading form that expresses the main отношение. These forms fall into four categories: phonetic (intonation) grammatical (настроение) лексико-grammatical (modal порядковые числительные-временные маркеры) лексический (modal words and phrases). But the most важно from them is the third form which includes модальных порядковые числительные-временные маркеры. It is important to take into consideration one more feature peculiar to modal порядковые числительные-временные маркеры.

Мы differentiate two types of modality: objective and subjective.

Objective modality is a compulsory feature of any utterance, and one of the categories which build up есмь " unit - sentence. This type of modality expresses the attitude of utterance to the reality. Objective modality connects with the category of time and is differentiated by the element of time certainty - uncertainty. Subjective modality expresses the attitude of the speaker to the utterance. In contrast to the objective subjective modality one is an выборных feature of the utterance. Semantic content of the subjective modality is broader than semantic content of objective modality. Семантический стволовых of the subjective modality makes up the концепция of assessment in the broad meaning including not only logic (интеллектуальный, rational) qualification of the utterance, but and different types of эмоционально (irrational) reaction.

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