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Morphologica processies

  • 6 страниц
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  • Добавлена 15.12.2007
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1. Development of morphology
2. The grammatical aspect of word-building
3. Morphemes

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are among adverbs, the number of possibilities will be reduced by one or to items. But even so we shall have to admit that the suffix -ly is of comparatively little value for determining the part of speech which a word belongs. Prefixes are only rarely found to distinguish one part of speech from another. For example, endear v - adj. dear, enlarge v - large adj., enmesh v - mesh adj., a few more examples of this kind may be found but there is not a single prefix to show definitely to what part of speech a word belongs. For instance the negative prefix in- may be found in nouns (independence) in adjectives (independent), in verbs (incapacitate),in adverbs (independently) etc. The prefix under - is also to be found in nouns.

3. Morphemes
From the point of view what they mark
grammatical morphemes
lexical morphemes
From the point of view of how they mark and what they consist in
affixational morphemes: prefix, suffix, infix (man – men)
word-morphemes: words which are used as auxiliaries to form a certain gr form: to have, to be, the Article
zero-morphemes – the meaningful absence of the morpheme
If we consider allomorphs, we should distinguish two variants of allomorphs:
phonemically conditioned: boys, books, matches
morphemically conditioned: different ways of the formation of the plural of the nouns: boys, men, oxen.
Каушанская В.Л. Грамматика английского языка + Сборник упражнений по грамматике. Издательство: Москва. – 2006. – 533 с.
Воронова Е. Английская грамматика: От теории к практике. Издательство: Айрис Серия: Домашний репетитор/Английский язык. – 2007. – 256 с.


1.Каушанская В.Л. Грамматика английского языка + Сборник упражнений по грамматике. Издательство: Москва. – 2006. – 533 с.
2.Воронова Е. Английская грамматика: От теории к практике. Издательство: Айрис Серия: Домашний репетитор/Английский язык. – 2007. – 256 с.


`Minor types of word formation


In English language as in many other languages there are a lot of different types of word building or word formation, also called word manufacturing. These types " not because of different interesting historic cases and are part of the whole English grammar. A good грамотно and qualified philologist should know a lot about these types of word производство, в том числе inflection and derivation, заимствования and minor types of word building. This knowledge can be very useful for people who are learning English grammar.

This essay is dedicated to the examination of the minor types of word building, including back-formation, резки, смешивания, reduplication, different language variations and so on. The essay consists of the introduction, the main part (contains detailed information about listed and other types of word building with many examples), к такому выводу and used literature.

Different literature including works of famous scientists, textbooks for изучение English and online sources of information was used for writing of this essay.


In English language we define two main ways of making new words: internal and external. Internal way means updating of language vocabulary due to its internal потенциал. It is a продуктивных way of word manufacturing. Internal способ включает в себя преобразование, affixation, сжатие, abbreviation, desaffixation. Внешние way means заимствования.

The main types of word building включает в себя inflection and derivation. Обычно используются inflection contributes a morpheme that is required in order to ensure that the word has a form that is соответствующих for the grammatical context in which it is used (tall-taller). Как inflection is driven by the requirement to form a word with the соответствующую форму, в частности grammatical контексте, derivation is повод by the desire to create new лексический items using preexisting morphemes and words. When you need a new word, you usually do not need to make it up from scratch. It is possible to create new лексический items by recycling preexisting материал. This is derivation. It takes one of these forms: affixation, conversion, стресс placement or усугубляется.

Let's briefly доллар ( $ ) them. Conversion is a way of word-formation без affix use as a result of which is образуются categorically different word conterminous in some forms with initial word (the story was filmed).

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