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Особенности перевода текстов газетно-публицистического стиля в английском языке.

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  • 126 источников
  • Добавлена 14.06.2012
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  • Содержание
  • Часть работы
  • Список литературы
  • Вопросы/Ответы
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


Введение
Глава 1. Языковые особенности газетно-публицистического стиля
1.1. Понятие средства массовой информации
1.2. Жанровая специфика газетных материалов
1.3. Специфические языковые явления газетно-публицистического стиля
Выводы по главе 1
Глава 2. Проблемы перевода текстов газетно-публицистического стиля
2.1. Явление эквивалентности в переводе
2.2. Приемы перевода безэквивалентных единиц
Выводы по главе 2
Глава 3. Перевод текстов газетно-публицистического стиля с английского языка на русский язык
3.1. Перевод заголовков
3.2. Перевод имен собственных
3.3. Перевод неологизмов и безэквивалентных наименований реалий
Выводы по главе 3
Заключение
Список использованной литературы
Приложение

Фрагмент для ознакомления

Slipping into darkness // The Economist. – 2011. – September 24th-30th. – P. 33 Комментирование Sudan One comes from a Wikileaks cable on Britain’s view of the ICC’s highest-profile indictment, of Sudan’s president Omar al-Bashir for genocide. The ICC and Africa // The Economist. – 2011. – February 19th-25th. – P. 56 Транскрипция Supreme Court With the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United, outside groups can pump as much money as they want into campaigns. Back to the ‘Bagman’ // Newsweek. – 2010. – November 8. – P. 49 Калька Tea Party The politics are pretty much the same on both sides of the line, though: the Tea Party runs strong here. Joe Klein talks with the Tea Party in Texarkana // Time. – Vol. 178. – 2011. – N 13. – P. 26 Калька + Комментирование Texarkana They call the city Texarkana because the Texas-Arkansas state line runs right through the middle of the town. Joe Klein talks with the Tea Party in Texarkana // Time. – Vol. 178. – 2011. – N 13. – P. 26 Транслитерация + Комментирование The Hague Even fans of the International Criminal Courts (ICC) in The Hague admit that its proceedings are interminable and expensive. The ICC and Africa // The Economist. – 2011. – February 19th-25th. – P. 56 Историческая традиция U.S. Abdel Hakim Belhaj is an Islamist whom Western spy agencies thought so dangerous that as recently as 2004, the governments of the U.S. and Britain conspired with the regime of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi to capture him in Kuala Lumpur and secretly fly him back to his homeland, Libya, where he was imprisoned and tortured for six years. Yesterday’s Enemies // Time. – Vol. 178. – 2011. – N 13. – P. 36 Историческая традиция U.S. Central Command In 2009, General Stanley McChrystal, then the commander of U.S. and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops, with the help of David Petraeus, then the commander of the U.S. Central Command, worked hard to design a comprehensive counterinsurgency campaign for Afghanistan that would “get the inputs right,” as Petraues often said. Leaving Afghanistan to the Afghans // Foreign Affairs. – Vol. 90. – September/October 2011. – N 5. – P. 45-54. Историческая традиция UN Security Council Britain has publicly backed the indictment, which followed a mandate from the UN Security Council. The ICC and Africa // The Economist. – 2011. – February 19th-25th. – P. 56 Калька Western spy agency Abdel Hakim Belhaj is an Islamist whom Western spy agencies thought so dangerous that as recently as 2004, the governments of the U.S. and Britain conspired with the regime of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi to capture him in Kuala Lumpur and secretly fly him back to his homeland, Libya, where he was imprisoned and tortured for six years. Yesterday’s Enemies // Time. – Vol. 178. – 2011. – N 13. – P. 36 Калька Wikileaks One comes from a Wikileaks cable on Britain’s view of the ICC’s highest-profile indictment, of Sudan’s president Omar al-Bashir for genocide. The ICC and Africa // The Economist. – 2011. – February 19th-25th. – P. 56 Калька
Картотека фразовых образований
Фразовое образование Контекст, источник Семантическая характеристика Словообразовательная модель All-providing Whether they cannot deal with something appalling they saw or did on duty; find they cannot function outside an all-providing institution… The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.41 Нет Pron-V All-you-can-eat Prepaid consumers are more likely to adopt an eat-what-you-need strategy rather than an all-you-can-eat one. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.25 Нет Pron-Pron-V-V Back-slapping But Mr Boehner is not at all back-slapping. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P. 51 praise or friendly support expressed in a very enthusiastic way Adv-V Bail-out He has already made the elections a high-risk test for his Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Pasok) by calling them a “referendum” on the harsh economic reforms required under Greece’s €110 billion ($145 billion) bail-out package from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 to help a person or organization that is having problems, especially financial problems V-Prep Bet-hedging Are voters more enthusiastic about the tea-party insurgents who set the grass-roots on fire, or the safer hands of the establishment types who wrote the cautious, bet-hedging Pledge to America, the nearest thing the Republicans offered to a manifesto? The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.56 Нет N-V Billion-dollar You see, medical marijuana is already a billion-dollar business, so the growers figured, Why mess with success? Time. November 15, 2010. P. 13 Нет Nm-N Blacked-out Even posh residential areas and industrial zones are not spared from power cuts that add to the sense of blacked-out city cut adrift by an army bunkered down in Naypyidaw. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.30 to make a place dark by turning off all the lights, for example so that the enemy cannot see a place at night V-Prep Blue-dog Centrist “blue-dog” Democrats, many of them in Republican-leaning districts, fared especially poorly. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.49 Нет Adj-N Booby-trapped This week police arrested two men with booby-trapped jiffy-bags in their backpacks close to the offices of a courier company. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 a hidden bomb designed to kill or injure someone who does not realize it is there N-V Book-selling As the book-selling giant seeks a new credit facility to stave off a bankruptcy filing, the question of whether or not this is the final chapter for Borders has attained new currency. Newsweek Нет N-V British-educated Riedel describes the original democratic vision of Pakistan’s engaging founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah—a dapper, chain-smoking, British-educated lawyer with a fondness for cocktails—and, at a brisk pace, takes readers on an excursion from the nation’s birth in 1947, through the India-Pakistan wars and the military dictatorships that followed. Newsweek Нет Adj-V Brother-in-law As Jerry Guo explains, Jang Song-taek, the brother-in-law of Kim Jong-il, has become the North Korean leader’s right-hand man and the regent for the younger Kim. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.4 the brother of your husband or wife, or the man who is married to your sister, or the man who is married to the sister of your wife or husband (CAM) N-Prep-N Business-friendly He is what he is: a business-friendly conservative with a genuine aversion to taxes, regulations and earmarks. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 35 Нет N-Adv Buy-out MGM was saddled with debt after leverages buy-out. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.10 to pay money to your business partner so that you can control all of a business you previously owned together V-Prep Buzz-generating Yes, Martin Jacques asserts confidently in his buzz-generating When China rules the world. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 24 Нет N-V Cap-and-trade It is too easy, though not entirely inaccurate, to argue that leaders like Nancy Pelosi stood too far from the mainstream – her forceful advocacy of cap-and-trade legislation certainly proved politically disastrous. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 30 Нет N-C-N Cap-and-trade The New York Times recently had to correct an otherwise unchallenged story about his close relationships with corporate lobbyists because it suggested one of them had “won” his vote against cap-and-trade and other Obama policies that Boehner clearly would have opposed anyway. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 37 Нет N-C-N Car-bombing In August, just before American combat forces left the country, more than 20 car-bombings and other attacks occurred simultaneously across Iraq. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.46 Нет N-V Cargo-security The plot, which was probably the work of al-Qaeda’s Yemeni affiliate, exposed the vulnerabilities of the global cargo-security system. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 46 Нет N-N Cast-iron Over the past five years, though, Thames water has replaced 1,300 miles of cast-iron Victorian mains, those most likely to break. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.6 very hard iron that breaks easily. It is made into objects by being heated and poured into moulds Adj-N Cease-fire The very day a two-month cease-fire declared by the rebel Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) expired, a suicide blast ripped through Istanbul’s busiest square, wounding 32. Time. November 15, 2010. P.14 an agreement to stop fighting for a period of time, especially in order to discuss permanent peace N-N Cell-phone Mobile Giving Foundation is an organization that persuaded U.S. cell-phone carriers to let donations pass through their networks without charge. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.19 a mobile phone N-N Central-bank With PayPal, he sought to create a global currency beyond the reach of taxation or central-bank policy. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 a national bank that controls a nation’s policies on money and interest rates Adj-N Chain-smoking For months Democrats lampooned him as a golf-addicted, lobbyist-encircled, chain-smoking Beltway insider with a weird orange tan and a radical right-wing agenda. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 Нет N-V Clean-tech There is, of course, another model of Silicon Valley politics, which finds its exemplars in the clean-tech race. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 Нет Adj-N Clear-eyed Otherwise, they won’t be able to get a clear-eyed view of the brash young nation (the People’s Republic is just 61 years old) across the Pacific. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 24 Нет Adj-V Climate-change California voters stayed green, defeating by a wide margin Proposition 23, which would have suspended the state’s 2006 climate-change law curbing greenhouse-gas emissions. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 16 the changes that are thought to be affecting the world’s weather so that it is becoming warmer N-N Closed-shop Pieces of vital legislation behind schedule include the liberalization of the closed-shop white-collar professions. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 a business where all the workers must be members of a particular trade union V-N Cloth-case Everything from a cloth-case wrap to a leatherette foil-stamped cover, heavier paper, better binding, innovative cover design. Newsweek Нет N-N Cold-eyed He should have mentioned that America’s story is more one of cold-eyed pragmatism than crusading moralism. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.4 Нет Adj-V Command-and-control It’s no coincidence that the Soviet Union and IBM, two raging, top-down, command-and-control systems, collapsed at about the same time. Newsweek Нет N-C-N Computer-industry The giant captured half of computer-industry sales and 80 percent of profits until horizontal companies Intel and Microsoft knocked it out at its knees. Newsweek Нет N-N Consumer-driven He’s complimented the legislation for making progress on coverage and payment changes while criticizing it for falling short on medical-malpractice reform and consumer-driven policies. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.24 Нет N-V Corporate-friendly Most Americans can’t tell Bill Daley (the new, corporate-friendly chief of staff) from Rahm Emanuel (the old, corporate-friendly chief of staff). Newsweek Нет N-Adv Corporate-leadership Now, with an estimated 10 million baby boomers eligible to retire by the end of the year, economists seem more worried than ever about an impending “corporate-leadership crisis”. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.14 Нет Adj-N Counter-terrorism If the Home Office review that is currently examining counter-terrorism laws recommends their retention, the junior branch of the coalition will rage. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.44 the actions and methods of a country that are intended to stop the activities of people who useviolence to achieve political aims Prep-N Country-club But the tears reflect a side of Boehner that defies the country-club caricatures: a self-made businessman with working-class roots. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 a private club where the members hold social events and play sports such as golf and tennis N-N Credit-fueled Americans have become more receptive to business models that might not have sense in the credit-fueled haze of 2005 and 2006. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.25 Нет N-V Cutting-edge But anyone committed to cutting-edge contemporary art and design has to wonder if Apple’s design gurus deserve those accolades. Newsweek the most modern and advanced point in the developmentof something V-N Day-after “Some lection nights are more fun than others,” Obama said at the beginning of his day-after press conference. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 31 Нет N-Prep Debit-card The debit-card industry isn’t the only large sector that has gloomed on to business models previously seen only in places like sub-Saharan Africa. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.25 a plastic card given by a bank that you use for paying for things. It moves money automatically fromyour bank account to the account of the person you are paying N-N Deep-seated The Chinese government’s aggressive territoriality fosters the deep-seated hesitance that characterizes Taiwaneses vies of unification. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.12 a deep-rooted feeling, belief, idea etc is strong and you have had it for so long that it is difficult tochange Adj-V Deficit-reduction He will take his deficit-reduction commission’s recommendation for reforming Social Security, a provision favored more by Republicans than democrats. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 31 Нет N-N Democracy-loving The only change that can make us hopeful about the future is strengthening and expansion of a national anti-fundamentalist and democracy-loving movement… Time. November 15, 2010. P. 18 Нет N-V Developing-world These types of arrangements are typical of developing-world countries that lack financial infrastructure and a culture of credit. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.25 Нет Adj-N Diamond-heist In Montenegro, for instance, members of a local diamond-heist gang known as the Pink Panthers are local heroes for ripping off posh Western jewelers. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.22 Нет N-N Do-nothing Harry Truman prevailed in 1948 by denouncing the “do-nothing” Republican Congress elected in 1946. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.50 Нет V-Pron Dual-function This is similar to the “dual-function” system of Indonesia under President Suharto until he was ousted in 1998. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.32 Нет Adj-N Eat-what-you-need Prepaid consumers are more likely to adopt an eat-what-you-need strategy rather than an all-you-can-eat one. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.25 Нет V-Pron-Pron-V Economic-policy Meanwhile, a series of economic-policy deadlines looms over the next four months. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.52 Нет Adj-N Electronic-part There was equal indignation over another foreign firm, Molex, an American electronic-parts maker. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.37 Нет Adj-N Encyclopedia-size This time things were not quite as peaceful, but we hardly felt the hit, and considering that the bumper was hanging off and there was an encyclopedia-size dent in the side, it tells you right there something about solid craftsmanship—and probably our shock. Newsweek Нет N-N Ethics-reform He’s a frequent flyer on corporate jets and successfully fought a ban on privately funded congressional travel in the 2007 ethics-reform bill. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 35 Нет N-N Euro-era The spread demanded by investors to hold Irish bonds rose to a new euro-era record, and spreads on Greek and Portuguese bonds also shot up. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.40 Нет N-N Euro-zone Yields rose sharply on Irish and Portuguese ten-year government bounds, mostly in reaction to the EU’s decision to back a Franco-German proposal to rewrite the rules on euro-zone debt. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.10 the group of European Union states that use the euro astheir official currency N-N Ever-rising No one thought that the economic boom would spawn ever-rising inflation. Newsweek Нет Adv-V Financial-regulatory-reform He never explained, in ways the public could understand, the restraints placed on Wall Street in the financial-regulatory-reform act or the new rights inherent in the health care reform bill. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 31 Нет Adj-Adj-N Fire-breathing But Mr Boehner has had trouble talking previous, less fire-breathing Republican caucuses of doctrinaire stances. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.51 Нет N-V Fire-walking But few would be surprised where the newly reappointed Latvian prime minister to reveal that his hobbies include fire-walking. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.38 Нет N-V Fish-oil Taking fish-oil pills during pregnancy does not improve cognitive skills in toddlers. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 16 oil from fish such as tuna or salmon, which is good for your health N-N Flag-waving Thiel, who is openly gay. Wants to flee the mob, not rally it through gold-hoarding or flag-waving. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 behaviour that shows strong feelings of love and loyalty for your country N-V Foil-stamped Everything from a cloth-case wrap to a leatherette foil-stamped cover, heavier paper, better binding, innovative cover design. Newsweek Нет N-V Foot-soldier New Republican governors will also be able to rally their foot-soldiers against Mr Obama in 2012. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.54 someone with a junior position in a company, whose job is to do necessary but boring work N-N Free-trade China has been drawing Taiwan closer with improved trade links, and the June signing of a breakthrough free-trade agreement between the two entities will bind Taiwan’s economy even tighter to the mainland’s. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.12 a system of international trade in which companies do not have to pay high taxes on the goods boughtfrom or sold in other countries Adj-N Front-line If the army really does start to step back from the political front-line, there are historical parallels, particularly Thailand. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.21 a place where opposing armies face each other in war and where fighting happens Adj-N Full-throated In her final speech as chairwoman of the Council of economic Advisers, she offered the full-throated call for more fiscal stimulus that the administration has largely abandoned. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.24 Нет Adj-V Furniture-handler But the half-dozen young, thuggish-looking men who said they were “furniture-handlers” hired to shift the ballot bags hardly inspired confidence. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.37-38 Нет N-N Get-out-the-vote The much-trumpeted Democratic get-out-the-vote operation in states like Ohio didn’t prove really as formidable as Democrats had hoped. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.49 Нет V-Prep-N Go-along-get-along At the same time, Boehner is keenly aware that the GOP’s Tea Party wing is suspicious of him as a go-along-get-along Establishment type. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 Нет V-Prep-V-Prep God-fearing Now comes The Sunset Limited, Jones’s television adaptation of McCarthy’s 2006 play about a theological debate between a professor (Jones) determined to kill himself and a God-fearing ex-con (Samuel L. Jackson) who has just interrupted the professor’s attempt at suicide. Newsweek always behaving according to the rules of your religion N-V Go-getter Still, the current climate, where even a little gumption stands out, could be good news for go-getters. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.14 someone who is determined to succeed and who works hard to achieve this. You can describesomeone like this as go-getting V-N Gold-hoarding Thiel, who is openly gay. Wants to flee the mob, not rally it through gold-hoarding or flag-waving. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 Нет N-V Golf-addicted For months Democrats lampooned him as a golf-addicted, lobbyist-encircled, chain-smoking Beltway insider with a weird orange tan and a radical right-wing agenda. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 Нет N-V Go-together As big go-togethers go, the Nordic Council’s annual sessions are chummy affairs. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.37 if two or more things go together, they frequently exist together V-Adv Grace-and-favour A century on, Nick Clegg, who these days shares the grace-and-favour retreat with William Hague, the foreign secretary, would probably scribble “Heaven”. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.44 a grace and favour house, flat etc has been given to someone to live in without payment by a king,queen, or government N-C-N Grass-root Are voters more enthusiastic about the tea-party insurgents who set the grass-roots on fire, or the safer hands of the establishment types who wrote the cautious, bet-hedging Pledge to America, the nearest thing the Republicans offered to a manifesto? The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.56 Нет N-N Greenhouse-gas California voters stayed green, defeating by a wide margin Proposition 23, which would have suspended the state’s 2006 climate-change law curbing greenhouse-gas emissions. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 16 a gas that stops heat from escaping from the atmosphere and causes the greenhouse effect. Carbondioxide is a greenhouse gas N-N Grown-up They have been more grown-up than that. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.44 an adult. This word is used mainly by children or whenspeaking to children V-Prep Happy-go-lucky The persistently pleasant weather, the happy-go-lucky esprit de corps, all the damn sunshine. Newsweek a happy-go-lucky person tends not to worry about the future Ad-V-Ad Harder-edged It is an open secret in Washington that Boehner’s harder-edged deputy, Eric Cantor, a protégé of his longtime rival DeLay, has his eye on the Speaker’s job someday. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 38 Нет Adj-V Health-care That gives him two things that administration needs: credibility with Republicans on health care and experience making a major health-care initiative work. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.24 the services that look after people’s health N-N Health-insurance There’s no better recent example, says Potter, an insurance p.r. guru turned whistle-blower, than the health-insurance industry’s stealth campaign to oppose Democratic health care reform. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 20 a type of insurance that pays for your medical treatment when you are ill N-N Health-insurance Medicaid instead of inviting those people into the more efficient health-insurance superstores, or exchanges, the bill created. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 30 a type of insurance that pays for your medical treatment when you are ill N-N Heavy-handed A heavy-handed, centralized form of government is thwarting Russia’s further economic progress. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.8 using too much force, or not considering people’s feelings enough when dealing with a situation Adj-V Hedge-fund No, say China skeptics like economist John Markin and hedge-fund honcho James Chanos. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 24 a financial service where money is invested (= given to companies hoping to get more back) in a way which tries to make very big profits, but which has a big risk N-N High-calorie 45%. Percentage of U.S. students who still have access to high-calorie beverages not allowed in school by national guidelines. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 16 Нет Adj-N High-growth-housing-boom The economy was led into recession by the coasts, where the collapse of expensive, highly leveraged housing markets wreaked the greatest havoc; by high-growth-housing-boom metroplexes like Las Vegas, Phoenix, and Miami; and by free-spending consumers with debt. Newsweek Нет Adj-N-N-N High-profile The Haiti campaign has proven the possibilities of mobile giving – particularly in response to a high-profile crisis. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.19 often seen in public, mentioned in newspapers, orappearing on television Adj-N High-risk All domestic cargo is screened, as is all “high-risk” international cargo. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 46 Нет Adj-N High-risk He has already made the elections a high-risk test for his Panhellenic Socialist Movement (Pasok) by calling them a “referendum” on the harsh economic reforms required under Greece’s €110 billion ($145 billion) bail-out package from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 Нет Adj-N High-tech One marquee project designed to move the country up the high-tech ladder is the new science center Skolkovo. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.8 using the most modern or advanced technology available, especially electronic equipment andcomputers Adj-N Human-right Invasions of white-owned farms, human-rights violations and blatant disrespect for the rule and low persist. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.47 Нет N-N Jiffy-bag This week police arrested two men with booby-trapped jiffy-bags in their backpacks close to the offices of a courier company. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 a type of thick envelope made with several soft layers to protect what is inside it N-N Jump-start He will agree to tax reductions – perhaps a brief delay in restoring the Clinton rates for the wealthy, perhaps a more dramatic payroll tax holiday to jump-start the economy. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 31 to make something work successfully after a period of failure N-V Labour-market But economic and labour-market policy would be co-ordinated, and foreign and defence policy would be ceded to the federation. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.37 the number of people who are available to work, considered together with all the available jobs N-N Laid-off Typically, the American economic juggernaut comes roaring out of hibernation once factories and stores work off excess inventory and recall laid-off workers. Newsweek to end someone’s employment, especiallytemporarily, because there is not enough work for them V-Prep Large-scale But two large-scale attacks in a week, as well as a bomb in Shia area in Diyala, a mixed Shia-Sunni province north of Baghdad, where another 25 civilians were killed, raise the spectre of wide-spread sectarian violence if a national-unity government is not formed soon. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.46 wide-ranging or extensive Adj-N Last-resort Germany says, it was temporary, “last-resort” measure to save the euro zone. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.40 used for saying that you will do something only after trying everything else to solve a problem Adj-N Law-enforcement Joining growers to defeat Prop 19 were civic leaders, law-enforcement agencies and the U.S. Department of Justice. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 13 the job of making sure that people obey the law N-N Left-wing Antonis Samaras, the new Democracy leader, opposes the EU-IMF reform programme, as do Greece’s small left-wing parties. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 the members of a political organization whose aims and ideas are considered to be more socialistthan the other members, for example because they believe that property, money, and power should be shared more equally Adj-N Letter-bomb A wave of failed letter-bombs targeting Angela Merkel, Silvio Berluskoni and Nicolas Sarkozy, as well as a clutch of foreign embassies, has revived Greek fears that local anarchist groups are preparing a fresh round of violence. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 a small bomb hidden inside a letter N-N Little-known Transforming this little-known town into a major business hub is an example of how China is trying to broaden its global influence as never before. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.4 Нет Adj-V Loan-penetration Russian’s loan-penetration ratios are similar to those of countries such as Egypt that have a far lower per capita income. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.8 Нет N-N Lobbyist-encircled For months Democrats lampooned him as a golf-addicted, lobbyist-encircled, chain-smoking Beltway insider with a weird orange tan and a radical right-wing agenda. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 Нет N-V Lofty-sounding Lots of lofty-sounding changes have been decreed, such as new election in May, which boosted the quota for women and allotted new seats to some under-represented districts. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.46 Нет Adj-V Long-distance AT&T owned phones and switches and long-distance lines until a very horizontal Internet and companies like Skype changed the economics of the phone call. Newsweek covering large distances Adj-N Long-lasting While upper-income folks have seen their portfolios reflate, those in the middle are still grappling with the long-lasting effects of the credit and housing debacles. Newsweek continuing for a long time Adv-V Long-run We have tools that would bring unemployment down without worsening our long-run fiscal outlook. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.24 not immediately but at some time in the future Adj-N Low-hanging Debt collectors will typically go after low-hanging fruit when they look to recoup money; if they think your former love can't, or won't, pay up, they are going to set their sights on you. Newsweek things that are easy to get, achieve, or deal with Adj-V Low-interest Despite $43 million in Massachusetts state aid, Evergreen's chief executive said that China's subsidies—mainly low-interest loans from state-controlled banks—were too great to pass up. Newsweek Нет Adj-N Low-key But the master of ceremonies was CEO Eric Schmidt, a seemingly low-key Silicon Valley veteran brought in by the board of directors in 2001 to provide adult supervision and coax the Wall Streeters and venture capitalists into the tent. Newsweek without much activity or reaction Adj-N Low-tax In its place, Reagan proposed a low-tax, small-government America. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 28 Нет Adj-N Market-research And utilities around the world lose between 25% and 50% of treated water to leaks, according to Lux Research, a market-research firm. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.4 the process of collecting information about what products people like to buy, or what people like ordislike about a particular product N-N Medical-malpractice He’s complimented the legislation for making progress on coverage and payment changes while criticizing it for falling short on medical-malpractice reform and consumer-driven policies. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.24 Нет Adj-N Medium-sized Yanukovich needs to win over small and medium-sized businessmen. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.38 neither large nor small Adj-V Mental-health When he came back six months later, doctors at a mental-health clinic recommended a medical discharge. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.41 the condition of your mind Adj-N Methane-emitting Ranchers raze the Brazilian rainforest and their methane-emitting cows foul the atmosphere with greenhouse gases. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.29 Нет N-V Middle-class Are they prepared to cut middle-class entitlements? Time. November 15, 2010. P. 28 a social group that consists of well-educated people, such as doctors, lawyers, and teachers, who have good jobs and are neither very rich nor very poor Adj-N Military-ruled Nowhere is such cynicism more apposite than in military-ruled Myanmar, formerly Burma, which goes to the polls on November 7th. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.29 Нет N-V Mobile-phone With any luck, this will start a wave of innovation like the one that has hit the mobile-phone space. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.16 a small phone that you can carry around with you. The usual American word is cell phone Adj-N Mortgage-based It has teetered since the beginning of the financial crisis thanks to its exposure to mortgage-based loans. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.10 Нет N-V Much-trumpeted The much-trumpeted Democratic get-out-the-vote operation in states like Ohio didn’t prove really as formidable as Democrats had hoped. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.49 Нет Adv-V Narrow-minded Thiel fellows will have the opportunity to emulate their sponsor by halting their intellectual development around the onset of adulthood, maintaining a narrow-minded focus on getting rich as young as possible. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 disliking or not interested in ideas or cultures different from your own Adj-V National-unity But two large-scale attacks in a week, as well as a bomb in Shia area in Diyala, a mixed Shia-Sunni province north of Baghdad, where another 25 civilians were killed, raise the spectre of wide-spread sectarian violence if a national-unity government is not formed soon. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.46 Нет Adj-N Near-tragedy This near-tragedy will surely bring about changes in Chilean mining. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.13 Нет Prep-N Never-before-seen For more never-before-seen photographs of Kennedy’s run for the presidency, visit LIFR.com/JFK. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 43 Нет Adj-Prep-V New-media “Twitter is the canary in the news coalmine,” wrote Jeff Jarvis, a new-media savant. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.6 new technologies such as the Internet and digital television Adj-N Nuclear-weapon The two powers will create a joint expeditionary force, put their aircraft carriers at each other’s disposal and share nuclear-weapons testing and research facilities. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 15 a powerful bomb or other weapon that uses nuclear energy Ad-N Off-limit The House Republican campaign platform put several major spending categories off-limits, including defense and entitlement programs like Social Security and Medicaid, but didn’t name a single one that might be on the chopping block. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 38 if a place is off-limits, you are not allowed to go there Prep-N Off-the-cuff Life is cyclical, and as the boys grew up and became husbands and fathers, Schmidt seemed to be finding his second youth, attracting unwanted attention in the gossip pages with coed trips to Burning Man and other adventures, and off-the-cuff statements that forced Google’s PR team into triage mode. Newsweek if you say something off-the-cuff, you do not plan it or think about it first Prep-N Old-fashioned No one could imagine doo-wop counting as the most timely pop of the 21st century, but we hold up Apple’s old-fashioned, Braun-ish products as just right for our times. Newsweek no longer modern or fashionable Adj-V Old-timer Jones has built a career around playing exactly this type of tough-seeming, laconic Marlboro Man: wiseacre U.S. Marshal Sam Gerard in The Fugitive, crusty old-timer Ed Tom Bell in No Country for Old Men. Newsweek an old man Adj-N Open-source In contrast, exploiting vague software patents to try to block open-source innovation neither helps consumers nor promotes the development of new technologies. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.22 the practice of writing computer programs that are based on a code that is available for anyone to use Adj-N Package-bomb Two cargo planes bound for the United States were discovered with package-bombs on board. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.9. Нет N-N Paring-down The paring-down of the Air may be a first step toward escaping shape altogether, which Apple then achieves in the iPad. Newsweek Нет V-Prep Peace-maintaining Without much forethought or planning or a dictator, benevolent or otherwise, the world has structured itself into a horizontal wealth-creating and peace-maintaining system—a productive system that actually increases the standard of living of all the participants, not just those in the United States. Newsweek Нет N-V Peanut-protein Researchers studying more than 500 babies found that those whose mothers had eaten peanuts at least twice a week during pregnancy tended to have higher level of peanut-protein antibody, which may prime their immune systems to react more aggressively to the nuts. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 16 Нет N-N Post-crash For the past two years, foreigners have done so much to help America in its post-crash time of need. Newsweek Нет Prep-N Post-quake When the country goes to the polls on Nov. 28 to choose a new president, the post-quake logistics present huge challenges… Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.12 Нет Prep-N Pot-addled Foes of legal herb ran ads depicting a hazy future of stoned nurses in hospitals and pot-addled drivers on roads. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 13 Нет N-V Pot-hole If the road ahead for Mr Obama is filled with pot-holes, that in front of John Boehner, the next speaker of the House, is strewn with elephant traps. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.15 a hole in a road N-N Poverty-stricken Sergio Fajardo sought to combat violence by complementing military efforts with social intervention in poverty-stricken neighbourhoods. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.18 Нет N-V Prescription-drug He was instrumental in implementing the Medicare prescription-drug benefit. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.24 a drug that you can only get if you have a prescription from your doctor N-N Printer-ink The devices were found while the planes were on the ground in Britain and Dubai, the explosives hidden in printer-ink cartridges and addressed to synagogues in Chicago. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.9 Нет N-N Privacy-protection Britain’s information commissioner found that Google had committed a “significant breach” on the law by collecting data from wireless networks, and will review Google’s privacy-protection procedures. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.10 Нет N-N Private-sector More private-sector output led to more private-sector hiring, which supported more spending, which, in turn, led to more output. Newsweek all the businesses, industries, and services that are not owned or managed by the government Adj-N Public-employee The unions benefited under Obama, but they can no longer count on more federal stimulus funds for state-worker payrolls, and with state budgets stressed, the GOP is targeting public-employee pensions and benefits for cuts. Time. November 15, 2010. P.27 Нет N-N Public-school Zuckerberg himself shows signs of actually caring about other people, having just donated $100 million to support change in Newark, N.J.’s blighted public-school system. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 a school that is controlled and paid for by the government N-N Public-sector Wage cuts for public-sector workers – Pasok’s core constituency – have angered party loyalists. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 the industries and services, for example schools and hospitals, that are supported by tax money andcontrolled by the government of a country N-N Raving-weeping What differentiates Silicon valley’s style of libertarianism from Glenn Beck’s raving-weeping variety is its laissez-faire attitude toward personal behavior and the lack of demagogic instinct. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 Нет V-V Red-tape Even though he had always yearned to abolish the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which he considers a red-tape monstrosity, he urged firebrands in the conference to push less dramatic but more achievable reforms. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 36 documents, rules, or processes that cause delays Adj-N Republican-leaning Centrist “blue-dog” Democrats, many of them in Republican-leaning districts, fared especially poorly. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.49 Нет N-V Rich-country-only With big players from the emerging and rich worlds around the table, the G20 has a legitimacy that is lacking in other economic clubs, such as rich-country-only G7. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.16 Нет Adj-N-Adv Right-hand As Jerry Guo explains, Jang Song-taek, the brother-in-law of Kim Jong-il, has become the North Korean leader’s right-hand man and the regent for the younger Kim. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.4 on or to the right Adj-N Right-wing For months Democrats lampooned him as a golf-addicted, lobbyist-encircled, chain-smoking Beltway insider with a weird orange tan and a radical right-wing agenda. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 conservative or reactionary Adj-N Risk-free Its support of its cronies in government at the expense of local communities is hardly risk-free. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.21 Нет N-Adj Runner-up Fajardo – the running mate of Antanas Mockus, the runner-up in this summer’s presidential election – spoke to Newsweek’s Mike Giglio. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.18 a person or team that does not win a competition or race but is second, or is close to winning N-Prep Small-government In its place, Reagan proposed a low-tax, small-government America. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 28 Нет Adj-N Smart-infrastructure Many countries have been spending large chunks of their stimulus packages on smart-infrastructure projects, and some have made smart systems as priority of industrial policy. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.4 Нет Adj-N Snub-nosed Inspired by foreign groups like Greenpeace, Liang launched successful campaigns to save rare species like the snub-nosed monkey and a Tibetian antelope hunted for its fur. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 22 with a short nose that looks rather flat N-V Social-networking Its attempts to launch social-networking software to keep up with Facebook have all fallen flat. Newsweek a website such as Facebook or MySpace that allows you to communicate with friends and make newfriends Adj-V Soft-spoken “There are clashes here between Palestinians and Israelis no doubt about it,” says Avraham Binyamin, a soft-spoken social worker who acts as spokesman for the 200 families in Yizhar. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 8 speaking or said in a quiet gentle voice Adj-V Sovereign-debt The proposal would shift the burden of rescuing countries that face a sovereign-debt crisis away from richer EU members, such as Germany, and towards bondholders. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.10 Нет N-N Speaker-in-waiting The speaker-in-waiting, who wept with emotion at his party’s revival last night, may soon find himself overcome by the difficulty of marshalling his new troops. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.51 Нет N-Prep-N Spray-printed “Greetings from the hills” was the message spray-printed in Hebrew on the scorched outbuilding of a girls’ school near Nablus earlier this month. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 8 Нет N-V Standard-bearer Republican leaders, including John Boehner, the party’s presumptive choice as speaker of the House, and Sarah Palin, the most prominent standard-bearer for the tea-party, have called on Mr Obama. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.50 a leader of a movement or party Adj-N State-controlled Despite $43 million in Massachusetts state aid, Evergreen's chief executive said that China's subsidies—mainly low-interest loans from state-controlled banks—were too great to pass up. Newsweek Нет N-V State-worker The unions benefited under Obama, but they can no longer count on more federal stimulus funds for state-worker payrolls, and with state budgets stressed, the GOP is targeting public-employee pensions and benefits for cuts. Time. November 15, 2010. P.27 Нет N-N Steel-and-concrete The rows and rows of trees set alight stand just yards from an Israeli checkpoint: a steel-and-concrete watchover commands a clear view of the scene of a crime that locals say has gone unpunished. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 8 Нет N-C-N Strife-torn Villages in strife-torn borderlands have been excluded from the ballot. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.32 Нет Adj-V Sun-kissed With his sun-kissed complexion, natty clothes and love of the links, Mr Boehner looks like a textbook country-club Republican. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.51 looking healthy because of getting a suntan N-V Tailor-made This is a collection of specialized chips, each tailor-made to analyze data from a certain type of sensor. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.6 specially made for a particular purpose N-V Talking-shop Optimists hoped it could become something all too rare in international economic diplomacy: a talking-shop worth having. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.16 an organization or meeting in which people talk too much and achieve nothing V-N Tax-free Bosses believe some workers try to get fired in order to win generous tax-free redundancy. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.37 if something is tax-free, you do not pay tax on it N-Adj Team-oriented Famously team-oriented, millennials would rather collaborate with their co-workers than compete. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.14 Нет N-V Tea-party There were mixed fortunes for candidates favoured by the conservative tea-party movement. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P. 9. a protest held in the US city of Boston in 1773 N-N Tech-savvy To Russia to become a fully industrialized country, it needs to move beyond natural resources and into more innovative and tech-savvy industries. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.8 Нет N-V Thuggish-looking But the half-dozen young, thuggish-looking men who said they were “furniture-handlers” hired to shift the ballot bags hardly inspired confidence. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.37-38 Нет Adj-V Top-down A richer Russia requires less top-down management and more individual enterprise. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.8 controlled by the people with the highest status in an organization Adj-Adj Top-down It’s no coincidence that the Soviet Union and IBM, two raging, top-down, command-and-control systems, collapsed at about the same time. Newsweek controlled by the people with the highest status in an organization Adj-Adj Tough-seeming Jones has built a career around playing exactly this type of tough-seeming, laconic Marlboro Man: wiseacre U.S. Marshal Sam Gerard in The Fugitive, crusty old-timer Ed Tom Bell in No Country for Old Men. Newsweek Нет Adj-V Two-state The Palestinian Authority says it won’t talk while Israelis build homes on the land that would form their half of a two-state solution. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 8 Нет Nm-N U.S.-backed Russia has kept its distance since U.S.-backed Afghan fighters defeated the Soviet military in 1989. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 14 Нет N-V Under-represented Lots of lofty-sounding changes have been decreed, such as new election in May, which boosted the quota for women and allotted new seats to some under-represented districts. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.46 underrepresented groups do not have enough people with power to speak for them or to help them Prep-V Unfrozen-caveman But his latest crusade is his worst yet, and more troubling than the possibility of an unfrozen-caveman venture capitalist awakening in the 22nd century and demanding his space capsule. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 Нет V-N Upper-income While upper-income folks have seen their portfolios reflate, those in the middle are still grappling with the long-lasting effects of the credit and housing debacles. Newsweek Нет Prep-N Venture-capital In fact, Schmidt has always been a sort of odd man out at Google. According to Silicon Valley lore, Schmidt only joined the company because in 1999, when Google raised its first big round of venture-capital funding, the investors insisted they would put money into Google only on the condition that Page and Brin would hire an experienced CEO to run the company. Newsweek money invested in a new business that may or may not be successful N-N Washington-insider Boehner’s staff complains about the “GLT” cartoon of Boehner – golf, tan and lobbyist, a Washington-insider version of jersey Shore’s gym, tan and laundry. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 35 Нет N-N Water-carved Whereas the water-carved clamshell of my beautiful Air just seems to have arisen from the waves, immaculate and virtuous, without a whiff of brimstone or fuel oil. Newsweek Нет N-V Water-supply Not even Thames water, the utility that operates the British capital’s water-supply network today, knows exactly where all the pipes run. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.6 water that is available for people to use in a particular area N-N Wealth-creating Without much forethought or planning or a dictator, benevolent or otherwise, the world has structured itself into a horizontal wealth-creating and peace-maintaining system—a productive system that actually increases the standard of living of all the participants, not just those in the United States. Newsweek Нет N-V Well-run Well-run compared with the neighbours, it has safe and tidy streets, good schools and steady if plodding economic growth. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.46 a well-run organization is managed in an effective way Adv-V Well-wisher This will be 143rd repatriation that the town has marked since April 2007 and several hundred family, friends, veterans and well-wishers will no doubt be on hand. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.41 a person who expresses their good wishes or sympathy, often to someone who they do not know Adv-N Whistle-blower There’s no better recent example, says Potter, an insurance p.r. guru turned whistle-blower, than the health-insurance industry’s stealth campaign to oppose Democratic health care reform. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 20 someone who reports dishonest or illegal activities within an organization to someone in authority N-N White-collar Pieces of vital legislation behind schedule include the liberalization of the closed-shop white-collar professions. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.36 white-collar workers work in offices rather than doing physical work. People who do physical work inplaces such as factories and mines are called blue-collar workers Adj-N White-owned Invasions of white-owned farms, human-rights violations and blatant disrespect for the rule and low persist. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.47 Нет N-V Wide-spread There is a wide-spread feeling in Jerusalem that Barack Obama lacks the gut sympathy for Israel that his immediate predecessors possessed. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.45 happening or existing in many places, or affecting many people Adj-V Winner-take-all The public, he says, doesn’t support unregulated, winner-take-all capitalism. Newsweek. October 25, 2010. P.26 Нет N-V-Pron Working-class But the tears reflect a side of Boehner that defies the country-club caricatures: a self-made businessman with working-class roots. Time. November 15, 2010. P. 34 the social class that consists of people who do not have much money, education, or power and whowork mainly in manual jobs (=jobs that involve physical work) V-N Would-be In May 2009 the country was agog at the revelation of a mysterious friendship between its septuagenarian prime minister, Silvio Berluskoni, and a blonde, 18-year-old would-be actress. The Economist. November 6-12th. 2010. P.35 hoping or trying to do something V-V Zero-reset Patented zero-reset system. Time. November 15, 2010. P.1 Нет Nm-N








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Новообразования в газетно-публицистическом стиле 90-х годов XX века

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

ГЛАВА I. ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА СЕМАНТИЧЕСКОЙ ОПУХОЛИ

.1 Темы исследования новообразований в газетно-публицистическом стиле

1.2 Семантическая характеристика новообразований

1.3 Экспрессивно-стилистические особенности, характерные для опухолей

ГЛАВА II. СЛОВООБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ОПУХОЛЕЙ

2.1 Узуальное словообразование

2.2 Окказиональное словообразование

ВЫВОД

СПИСОК литературы

ЗАПРОС

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Газетно-публицистический стиль представляет продуктивный материал для исследования опухолей, так как новации последних лет наиболее широко представлены в газетной публицистике, в которые, в силу специфики стиля, новых слов находятся записи гораздо раньше, чем в других источников.

Новообразование, как компонент газетного текста является отражением особенностей функционального стиля: и тех, которые являются константными и технические, которые обусловлены состоянием общества, и чтобы захватить общий социокультурный фон и какой-то дух времени.

Актуальность темы дипломной работы обусловлена тенденции, существующие в лингвистике, заключающимися трафика изучения языка, системы, для анализа живых процессов речи (1).

Система характеристик опухолей / семантические и словообразовательные / дополняются исследованием процессов их взаимодействия со средой функционирования, в данном случае - газетно-публицистическим стилем. Исследование опухолей, как речи технологиям отвечает за функциональный подход и в том, что касается внимание к динамике процессов в языке. Опухоли наряду с другими типами новых слов представляет интерес в выявлении направления развития системы языка, в особенности ее лексического и словообразовательного уровней. Без изучения современных инноваций невозможно понять настоящее и будущее тех процессов, которые привели к неологическому

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