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“Evaluate different economic explanations of current level of inflation in Russia”

  • 7 страниц
  • 7 источников
  • Добавлена 19.02.2015
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Эссе на тему “Evaluate different economic explanations of current level of inflation in Russia”
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This is far from the case at the moment, even though a weaker rouble will have nudged down the break-even point. But of course, sooner or later, the downfall of the oil prices is going to influence the global economy. If prices remain weak — and many forecasters suggest they will — then from Moscow to Caracas and from Lagos to Tehran governments will start to feel the impact of it on macroeconomic policy.In conclusion, we must notice, that Russia's economic breakdown has many reasons, and there is no point in underlining one or two of them and concealing or underestimating the others. But those reasons, whatever they are, though they ultimately come down to Putin's mismanagement of the economy, turning Russia into a corrupt and inefficient petro-state dependent on the ebbs and flows of energy prices. Besides, as we said before, when it comes to inflation too, it is Russia's own self-imposed sanctions that are largely responsible. So Russia's already-weak economy left it less able to withstand the challenges imposed by low oil prices and international (and its own) sanctions. Ironically, the President retaliates against the West by hurting Russia.But policy is policy, economy is economy. Polls still show that Putin's popularity remains at all-time highs of over 80 percent. Russians, perhaps hardened by many past crises, show little inclination to panic or protest. But also it is possible that we are just are no strangers to economic crisis, having seen repeated crashes in the 1990s and a short but extremely deep recession in the wake of the Wall Street collapse in 2008, so we are waiting patiently for changes.ReferencesInflation Russia - consumer price index (CPI). http://www.global-rates.com/economic-indicators/inflation/consumer-prices/cpi/russia.aspx, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.Tanas O. Russian Inflation Accelerates to Nine-Month High on Ruble. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-04/russian-inflation-rate-climbs-to-nine-month-high-on-weaker-ruble.html, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.Russia Says Inflation Could Hit 17% By March. http://www.businessinsider.com/afp-russia-says-inflation-could-reach-17-in-2015-2015-1#ixzz3PLXYcZYC, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.Borshchevskaya A. Russia's high inflation rate may be even worse than first meets the eye. http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/international/224104-russias-already-high-inflation-may-be-even-worse-than-first, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.Elliot L. Recession in Russia, revolt in Venezuela? The knock-on effects of tumbling oil prices. http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/oct/16/datablog-low-oil-prices-chill-producer-economies, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.Gritsenko G. Perilous Excise. http://polit.ru/article/2014/10/24/excise/, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.Weir F. Oil prices, ruble, inflation all bite Russia, but how badly? http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2014/1215/Oil-prices-ruble-inflation-all-bite-Russia-but-how-badly-video, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.

1. Inflation Russia - consumer price index (CPI). http://www.global-rates.com/economic-indicators/inflation/consumer-prices/cpi/russia.aspx, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.
2. Tanas O. Russian Inflation Accelerates to Nine-Month High on Ruble. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-04/russian-inflation-rate-climbs-to-nine-month-high-on-weaker-ruble.html, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.
3. Russia Says Inflation Could Hit 17% By March. http://www.businessinsider.com/afp-russia-says-inflation-could-reach-17-in-2015-2015-1#ixzz3PLXYcZYC, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.
4. Borshchevskaya A. Russia's high inflation rate may be even worse than first meets the eye. http://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/international/224104-russias-already-high-inflation-may-be-even-worse-than-first, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.
5. Elliot L. Recession in Russia, revolt in Venezuela? The knock-on effects of tumbling oil prices. http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/oct/16/datablog-low-oil-prices-chill-producer-economies, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.
6. Gritsenko G. Perilous Excise. http://polit.ru/article/2014/10/24/excise/, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.
7. Weir F. Oil prices, ruble, inflation all bite Russia, but how badly? http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2014/1215/Oil-prices-ruble-inflation-all-bite-Russia-but-how-badly-video, retrieved 19 Jan, 2015.

Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

Аннотация. This paper presents a discrete-event simulator for the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) on the IP level. GPRS is standard on packet data в GSM systems that will become commercially available by the end of this year. The simulator focuses on the communication over the radio interface, because it is one of the central aspects of GPRS. We study the correlation of GSM andGPRS users by a static and dynamic channel allocation scheme. In contrast to previous work, our approach style the mobility of users through прибытия rates of new GSM и GPRS users as well as соединения rates of GSM и GPRS users from neighboring cells. Кроме того, мы считаю users with different QoS profiles modeled by a weighted fair queueing схемы. The simulator considers a cell кластера comprising seven шестигранные ячейки. We provide curves for average carried traffic and packet loss вероятностей for differentchannel allocation schemes and packet приоритеты as well as curves for average пропускной способности за GPRS-user. A detailed comparison between static and dynamic channel allocation schemes is provided.

1 Introduction

The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a standard from the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) on packet data в GSM systems [6], [14]. By adding GPRS functionality to the existing GSM network operators can givetheir subscribers resource-efficient wireless access to external Internet protocol-bases networks, such as the Internet and corporate intranets. The basic idea of GPRS is to provide a packet-switched большинстве случаев применяются номеров в GSM сети. Как impressively demonstrated by the Internet, packet-switched networks make more efficient use of the resources for bursty дата applications and provide more flexibility в целом. In previous work, several analytical models have been developed to study data services в GSM сети. Ajmone Марсан et al. изучал (а) multimedia services in a GSM network by providing more than one channel for data services [1]. Boucherie and Litjens разработана an analytical model based on Markov chain analysis to study the performance of GPRS under a given GSM телефонный гостям [4]. For analytical tractability, they assumed exponentially distributed arrival times for packets and экспоненциальный packet transfer times, respectively. On the other hand, discrete-event simulation based studies of GPRS были проводиться. Meyer et al. focused on the performance of over TCP GPRS under several carrier to вмешательства conditions and coding schemes of data [10]. Кроме того, they provided a detailed implementation of the GPRS protocol stack [11]. Malomsoky et al. developed a simulation based GPRS network dimensioning инструмент [9]. Stuckmann et al. studied the correlation of GSM и GPRS users with the simulator GPRSim [13]. This paper describes a discrete-event simulator for GPRS on the IP level. The simulator is developed using the simulation package CSIM [12] and considers a cellcluster comprising of seven шестигранные ячейки. The presented performance studies were проводиться for the innermost cell of the seven cell кластера. The simulator focuses on the communication over the radio interface, because this is one of the central aspects of GPRS. In fact, the air interface основном determines the performance of GPRS. We studied the correlation of GSM и GPRS users by a static and dynamic channel allocation scheme. A first approach modeling of dynamic channel allocation was introduced by Bianchi et al. and is known as

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