Вам нужна курсовая работа?
Интересует Языки?
Оставьте заявку
на Курсовую работу
Получите бесплатную
консультацию по
написанию
Сделайте заказ и
скачайте
результат на сайте
1
2
3

"Социально-экономические факторы речевого поведения в современном обществе"

  • 23 страницы
  • 10 источников
  • Добавлена 15.05.2010
650 руб. 1 300 руб.
  • Содержание
  • Часть работы
  • Список литературы
Contents

INTRODUCTION
1. Theory of sociolinguistic problems of the research
1.1 The social role of language
1.2 Language and speech
2. Socio-economic factors of speech behavior
2.1. Social factors
2.2. Economic factors
Conclusion
Literature

Фрагмент для ознакомления

It also confirms that the relationship is friendly and expresses group reciprocity.
If you answered C, you used the Negative Politeness strategy which similar to Positive Politeness in that you recognize that they want to be respected however, you also assume that you are in some way imposing on them. Some other examples would be to say, "I don't want to bother you but..." or "I was wondering if ..."
If you answered D, you used Off-Record indirect strategies. The main purpose is to take some of the pressure off of you. You are trying not to directly impose by asking for a pen. Instead you would rather it be offered to you once the teacher realizes you need one, and you are looking to find one. A great example of this strategy is somethin g that almost everyone has done or will do when you have, on purpose, decided not to return someone's phone call, therefore you say, " I tried to call a hundred times, but there was never any answer."
Sociolinguists try to explain why there is a greater frequency of the use of polite speech from women than from men. In our society it is socially acceptable for a man to be forward and direct his assertiveness to control the actions of others. However, society has devalued these speech patterns when it is utilized by women. From historical recurrence, it has appeared that women have had a secondary role in society relative to that of the male.
Therefore, it has been (historically) expected from a women to "act like a lady" and "respect those around you." It reflects the role of the inferior status being expected to respect the superior. In Frank and Anshen's "Language and the Sexes", they note that boys, "are permitted, even encouraged, to talk rough, cultivate a deep "masculine" voice and, if they violate the norms of correct usage or of polite speech, well "boys will be boys," although, peculiarly, it is much less common that "girls will be girls" Fortunately, these roles are becoming more of a stereotype and less of a reality. However, the trend of expected polite speech from the female continues to remain. This is a prime example of how society plays an important part on the social function of the language. (Holmes, 2001)
A common cultural stereotype describes women as being talkative, always speaking and expressing their feelings. Well, this is probably true, however, do women do it more than men? No! In fact an experiment designed to measure the amount of speech produced suggested that men are more prone to use up more talking time than women. An experiment b y Marjorie Swacker entailed using three pictures by a fifteenth century Flemish artist, Albrecht Durer which were presented to men and women separately. They were told to take as much time as they wanted to describe the pictures. The average time for males: 13.0 minutes, and the average time for women 3.17 minutes. (Holmes, 2001)
Sapir found that the male form of speech is used by men when talking to other men. Female speech is used by women talking to other women or men, or by men talking to women. Therefore, there is an exclusive speech pattern for men speaking to men. (Holmes, 2001)

2.2. Economic factors

A simplified language derived from two or more languages is called a pidgin. It is a contact language developed and used by people who do not share a common language in a given geographical area. It is used in a limited way and the structure is very simplistic.
These lines are taken from a famous comic strip in Papua New Guinea:
"Sapos yu kaikai planti pinat, bai yu kamap strong olsem phantom."
"Fantom, yu pren tru bilong mi. Inap yu ken helpim mi nau?"
"Fantom, em i go we?" (Holmes, 2001)

Translation:
'If you eat plenty of peanuts, you will come up strong like the phantom.' 'Phantom, you are a true friend of mine. Are you able to help me now?' 1Where did he go?' (Holmes, 2001)

Since they serve a single simplistic purpose, they usually die out. However, if the pidgin is used long enough, it begins to evolve into a more rich language with a more complex structure and richer vocabulary. Once the pidgin has evolved and has acquired native speakers (the children learn the pidgin as their first language), it is then called a Creole. An example of this is the Creole above from Papua New Guinea, Tok Pisin, which has become a National language.
Reasons for the development of Pidgins are different. In the nineteenth century, when slaves from Africa were brought over to North America to work on the plantations, they were separated from the people of their community and mixed with people of various other communities, therefore they were unable to communicate with each other. The strategy behind this was so they couldn't come up with a plot to escape back to their land. Therefore, in order to finally communicate with their peers on the plantations, and with their bosses, they needed to form a language in which they could communicate. Pidgins also arose because of colonization. Prominent languages such as French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, and Dutch were the languages of the coloni zers. They traveled, and set up ports in coastal towns where shipping and trading routes were accessible.
Can you guess what major language (the superstrate) contributed to the vocabulary in each of these Creoles? This table is taken from Janet Holmes, " An Introduction to Sociolinguistics" (Holmes, 2001):
a. mo pe aste sa banan
b. de bin alde luk dat big tri
c. a waka go a wosu
d. olmaan i kas-im chek
e. li pote sa bay mo
f. ja fruher wir bleiben
g. dis smol swain i bin go fo maket

Interpretation:
a. I am buying the banana
b. they always looked for a big tree
c. he walked home
d. the old man is cashing a check
e. he brought that for me
f. Yes at first we remained
g. this little pig went to market

There is always a dominant language which contributes most of the vocabulary of the pidgin, this is called the superstrate language. The superstrate language from the Papua New Guinea Creole example above is English. The other minority languages that contribute to the pidgin are called the substrate languages.
In the United States, there is a very well known Creole, Louisiana Creole, which is derived from French and African Languages. It may be most likely heard of "Cajun" which is a developed dialect of this Creole.

Conclusions to Chapter 2
The language used by the participants is always influenced by a number of social factors which define the relationship between the participants. The inappropriateness is a social decision tied to the social factors which shape the relationship between speaker and the listener.
A simplified language derived from two or more languages is called a pidgin. It is a contact language developed and used by people who do not share a common language in a given geographical area. It is used in a limited way and the structure is very simplistic. There is always a dominant language which contributes most of the vocabulary of the pidgin, this is called the superstrate language.

























Conclusions
So language is affected by social, political, economic, cultural and technical changes. The unity of the social milieu and the unity of the immediate social event of communication are conditions absolutely essential for a language-speech fact. But the organised social milieu and the immediate social communicative situation are in themselves extremely complicated and involve hosts of multifaceted and multifarious connections, not all of which are equally important for the understanding of linguistic facts, and not all of which are constituents of language
Sociolinguistics is a term including the aspects of linguistics applied toward the connections between language and society, and the way we use it in different social situations. It ranges from the study of the wide variety of dialects across a given region down to the analysis between the way men and women speak to one another. Sociolinguistics often shows us the humorous realities of human speech and how a dialect of a given language can often describe the age, sex, and social class of the speaker; it codes the social function of a language
The language used by the participants is always influenced by a number of social factors which define the relationship between the participants. The inappropriateness is a social decision tied to the social factors which shape the relationship between speaker and the listener.
A simplified language derived from two or more languages is called a pidgin. It is a contact language developed and used by people who do not share a common language in a given geographical area. It is used in a limited way and the structure is very simplistic. There is always a dominant language which contributes most of the vocabulary of the pidgin, this is called the superstrate language.
Sociolinguists try to make the connection between our society and our language in a way that suggests that women talk less because it has not always been as culturally acceptable as it has been for men. Men have tended to take on a more dominant role not only in the household, but in the business world. This ever-changing concept is becoming le ss applicable in our society, however, the trend is still prominent in some societies across the world. It is more acceptable for a man to be talkative, carry on long conversation, or a give a long wordy speech, however it is less acceptable for a women to do so. It has been more of a historical trend for men have more rights to talk. However , it is common for men to be more silent in situations that require them to express emotion. Since childhood, they have been told to "keep their cool" and "remain calm, be a man."
To my opinion language plays one of the important roles in the socio-economic life of the people. But it is difficult to make such researches as the social and economic life is changing every time, so it needs to make the special methodology of such linguistic researches.


















Bibliography

Arnold I.V. Lexicology of modern English language. M. 1986. 295 p.
Beaugrande R. Language and society: The real and the ideal in linguistics, sociolinguistics, and corpus linguistics Journal of Sociolinguistics 3/1, 1998, 128-139.
Chomsky N. Language and responsibility. New York: Pantheon. 1977
Firth, John Rupert Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951. London: Oxford UP. 1957
Galperin I.R. Stylistics. 2 ed. rev. M: Higher school, 1977. 332 p.
Giles H. and Coupland N. Language: Contexts and Consequences. 1991.
Hjelmslev, Louis Prolegomena to a theory of language. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1969
Holmes J. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics:Second Edition. Pearson Edication, 2001.
Hudson R. A. Sociolinguistics. 1980.
Trudgill P. Dialects in Contact. 1986.











23


Literature

1.Arnold I.V. Lexicology of modern English language. M. 1986. 295 p.
2.Beaugrande R. Language and society: The real and the ideal in linguistics, sociolinguistics, and corpus linguistics Journal of Sociolinguistics 3/1, 1998, 128-139.
3.Chomsky N. Language and responsibility. New York: Pantheon. 1977
4.Firth, John Rupert Papers in Linguistics 1934-1951. London: Oxford UP. 1957
5.Galperin I.R. Stylistics. 2 ed. rev. M: Higher school, 1977. 332 p.
6.Giles H. and Coupland N. Language: Contexts and Consequences. 1991.
7.Hjelmslev, Louis Prolegomena to a theory of language. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 1969
8. Holmes J. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics:Second Edition. Pearson Edication, 2001.
9.Hudson R. A. Sociolinguistics. 1980.
10.Trudgill P. Dialects in Contact. 1986.

Узнать стоимость работы