Лексические характеристики публицистического стиля английского языка (на примере темы Поколения в США).
- 18 страниц
- 19 источников
- Добавлена 08.07.2012
- Часть работы
- Список литературы
1. Понятие речевого стиля
2. История публицистического стиля
3. Публицистический стиль
4. Лексические признаки публицистического стиля
Baby Boomers данное слово принимает тут значение определяющее целую категорию людей, и не является переводом как «демографический взрыв», но и относится к людям, т.е семантика слова расширяет свое значение.
Также стоит отметить, что статья имеет определенную структуру, которую редко встретишь, например в реферате. Свободное изложение точки зрения автора, короткие предложения.
Другой пример статьи это:
I DON`T remember the first time I heard the term ``baby boomer,`` but it must have been pretty early in my life, because I feel like I`ve always known I was part of a special group.
It`s not easy living your life as a part of a bulge in the population charts. The media never let up on telling you what problems you cause in society, what trends you set or what your future is likely to be.
I must admit that I`m a sucker for those kinds of articles. All I have to read is the term ``baby boomers`` and I devour the article to find out what is happening in my generation.
But the problem with all those articles is that we baby boomers find ourselves constantly comparing ourselves with others in our generation and feeling a sense of insecurity if we don`t measure up.
We are the generation born after what can only be called an enthusiastic return of our fathers from war and their relief at living through wartime and uncertainty.
THERE IS an old photograph published in Life magazine showing a crowd of mothers holding up their babies and smiling at the wealth they have produced that typifies for me the crowded feeling that those babies will face throughout their lives.
The stories began then, while we were being born. Already demographers and social scientists were looking at us and planning the studies that would chronical our every move throughout our lifetimes.
When we entered the elementary schools we were seen, 40 to a room with one teacher, crowding classrooms that were not ``open`` or ``individualized,`` and yet we were told that we turned out to be the best educated generation in the history of our country.
What to do about the baby boomers, how to educate them and keep up with the Russians, caused an era of emphasis on educational methods and experimentation that we may never recover from and that probably spent too much time trying to correct problems that weren`t there in the first place.
AS WE MOVED along in the timeline that was to become our lives, we crowded the universities, became hippies and war resisters, Vietnam casualties, Peace Corps volunteers--all in the spotlight of television cameras, which gave us a sense of our own importance that we probably didn`t deserve, but nevertheless relished.
The job market was next, and we faced the shortage of jobs but somehow managed to become employed in record numbers.
(Chicago tribune/ Barbara Dillard)
В этой статье хочется выделить что помимо лексики как в первом примере автор использует еще эффект визуализации, что редко встречается в других стилях, например:
AS WE MOVED – выделяя какую-либо часть текста шрифтом гораздо большим чем основной текст, мы тем самым привлекаем внимание читающего к этой части, заставляем задержаться подольше, запомнить ее.
Такой эффект вряд ли где то можно встретить кроме как в газетном публицистическом стиле.
As Temps Rise, Nuclear Families Take a Dive –
Estate Planning for Unconventional Families Has Never Been More Important
Among the many articles covering the blazing heat wreaking havoc on my beloved DC metro area as well as much of the U.S., was an interesting piece in a recent edition of The Washington Post on nuclear families. According to the article, new census figures show that marriage rates across the nation have plunged, while the number of unmarried partners with children has soared.
Too Hot to Handle
Traditional families face their own host of challenges when it comes to estate planning. But, with fewer people embracing the status quo, a new generation of “unconventional”families has evolved in which case the scenarios are endless and the challenges are greater than ever before.
- If one or both of your parents remarry…What if your mother’s estate wound up in the hands of your stepbrother even though they were intended for you?
- If you’ve long been divorced from your ex…How would you like your ex to inherit your property, your bank accounts and your retirement benefits despite the fact you willed them to your children?
- If you’re gay, but not legally married…Would you like your assets to end up in the hands of your intolerant family members?
- If you were to become physically or mentally unable to care for yourself…Would you trust your estranged sibling to make medical and financial decisions on your behalf?
These are just a handful of the messy scenarios that can occur within unconventional families.
Beat The Heat: Be Prepared!
The only way to protect yourself, your estate and your loved ones from the costly and potentially disastrous effects of the unexpected is to be prepared.
While there’s never a one-size-fits-all solution, when it comes to unconventional families, the need for customized estate planning documents and strategies is even more crucial. You may think, “Well, if I just have a will in place, I’m covered.” This is one of the most dangerous, yet most common, misconceptions I encounter.
(By Gary Altman, Esq., CFP)
Данный пример дает нам возможность говорит о том, что в данном стиле могут комбинироваться слова из разных областей, например, медицина и наука. А значение некоторых слов становится переносным.
Back in 1965, the chief executive of Elizabeth Arden wrote in Forbesmagazine: "We don't want to be connected with older women."
Not much has changed. Today there are more than 20 million Britons over 50; yet, despite our numbers, we can be forgiven for feeling that we are ever so slightly embarrassing.
The ageing population is almost never out of the news, but the fact that we're all living longer, which really ought to be a good thing, is always seen as a problem. The country can't afford the pension bills or the social care. We're threatening the social fabric with our healthcare costs and our housing wealth. David Willetts, minister for universities and science, has written a book, The Pinch, claiming the over-50 baby boomers have stolen our children's future. Two bright young journalists, Ed Howker and Shiv Malik, have written another book identifying themselves as the Jilted Generation. Thanks to greedy boomers and their incessant needs, we appear to be heading for intergenerational warfare.
Last week Gransnet was launched as a social networking site for Britain's 14m grandparents. It is the offspring of Mumsnet, which has, in its 11 years, given a voice to a group – parents – that was previously somewhat disenfranchised. We're hoping that we may be able to do something similar for people in the second half of life. Yet it's fair to say that when we approached advertising agencies before the launch, many of the young people we met looked at us blankly. Like, you mean, old people?
There's a paradox here. At the same time as older people are presented as a threat, they are also widely ignored. That older women feel invisible is a common complaint, of course, in a society where a bit of cellulite on a celebrity thigh is cause for scandalised newspaper articles, and in which Miriam O'Reilly was advised to get Botox before being removed from her job as a television presenter.
But men also suffer from a similar sense of vertigo, especially once they have retired. Between the ages of 50 and old age, who are we? What's our purpose? It appears we're not even wanted as consumers. We can feel as though we exist in a kind of identity void.
After 50, you join a group that might as well be on another planet when it comes to marketing. Advertisers think in demographic blocs of 18-49, or, at a push, 25-54. It's as if there is no adulthood beyond that. This is very short-sighted because, by 2030, over-65s are going to account for a quarter of the consumer market in Britain. Presumably the assumption is that we'll only be interested in buying insurance and cruises – and they all have the same advert anyway. It's that picture of a silver-haired couple walking along a beach.
It will need to be a very long beach. One-fifth of Britons alive today can expect to see 100. Increasing longevity and improved healthcare mean that many people over 50 are fit and capable. And they are confidently looking forward to all those spare years and wondering what to do with them.
We hear an awful lot about the ageing population, but the real story is that there's an explosion of people in late middle age. We mid-lifers have very few roadmaps through the new phase that has opened up. All the assumptions about life courses were made for a different time, when childhood was followed by adulthood, retirement and, then, in fairly short order, decline and death. In the 20th century, as lifespans began to increase, the "golden years" were invented – a time for the golf course, for that beach so beloved of advertisers and, er, that's it. In the 21st century, that looks rather boring and, frankly, a bit infantilising.
It may be that many mid-lifers will continue to leave 9-5 jobs in big companies (to "make way" for younger people, who are, not entirely coincidentally, cheaper), but that doesn't mean we don't want to go on working or volunteering or being involved with our families. We still want to be a part of things.
Прежде всего надо отметить, что статья имеет одну тематику, посвященную проблема того, что люди в возрасте начинают чаще рожать детей.
Как мы уже говорили для данного стиля характерны не длинные, а короткие и лаконичные предложения, больше похожие на лозунги.
Baby boomers need their own online voice to fight prejudice as they get old
Виноградов В.В. Избранные труды. Лексикология и лексикография. - М., 1977.- С. 162-189
Разинкина Н. М. Функциональная стилистика английского языка. М., 1989.
Реформатский А.А. Введение в языкознание. М., 1955.
Ахманова Г. И., Богомолова О. И. Теория и практика английской научной речи. М., 1987
Чиркова Н. В. Английский язык (научный стиль). Ульяновск, 1991.
Khisamova G.G., Yakovleva E.A. Stylistics and culture of speech: Teaching aid / Bashkir State Univ. Ufa, 1995.
Соколова М. А. Практическая фонетика английского языка//Владос – м., 2000
1.Ахманова Г. И., Богомолова О. И. Теория и практика английской научной речи. М., 1987.
2.Глушко М.М. и др. Функциональный стиль общественного языка и методы его исследования. М., 1974.
3.Глушкова К. А. Синтаксические особенности парцеллированных коенструкций в научно-популярном стиле современного английского языка.// Функциональные характеристики единиц коммуникации в английском языке. Владивосток, 1990.
4.Глушкова К. А. Вставочные конструкции в научном стиле (на материале английского и русского языков).// Научно- тематический сборник, выпуск 4, ДВГУ, Владивосток, 1973.
5.Зайцев А.Б. Некоторые особенности прагматической адаптации перевода англоязычного научного текста на русский язык // Вестник ОГУ. 2001.
6.Миньяр-Белоручев Р. К. Общая теория перевода и устный перевод. М., 1980.
7.Нелли П. Х., Сидоренко Ж. И. Лексические средства создания и семантические разновидности категории «оценка собственной и чужой речи» в языке науки.
8.Разинкина Н. М. Функциональная стилистика английского языка. М., 1989.
9.Реформатский А.А. Введение в языкознание. М., 1955.
10.Рецкер Я. И. Методика технического перевода. М. 1934.
11.Стрелковский Г.М., Латышев Л.К. Научно-технический перевод. М.: Просвещение, 1980.
12.Харченко К. В. Обороты английской научной в распоряжении старшеклассников // Актуальные проблемы развития и лингвистического образования детей. Сборник научных статей. Орел, 2002. С.122 - 124.
13.Чиркова Н. В. Английский язык (научный стиль). Ульяновск, 1991.
14.Язык и стиль научной литературы: Теоретические и прикладные проблемы. М., 1977.
15.Khisamova G.G., Yakovleva E.A. Stylistics and culture of speech: Teaching aid / Bashkir State Univ. Ufa, 1995.
16.Talbot J., Taylor. Linguistic Theory and Structural Stylistics. - Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981.
18.Hornby A.S. et. al. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. - London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1980.
19.Webster's Third New International Dictionary. 1961.